I am a software guy by profession and have been lately delving into some system ops at work. Been playing around with a home server for the last month or so mostly for learning purposes. Lots of questions and searching on the internet. Came across this book that is quite useful to understand some of the basics around setting up a home network. "Home Wireless Networking in a Snap (Sams Teach Yourself) (Paperback)" (http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0672327023). I am a linux guy and although this book is based on setting a windows server, still the router related stuff applies everywhere. Came across this book when I was trying to resolve as to why my home server won't respond to ping although ssh and ftp works. DUH!!! the router is the public interface for the home network and the settings on the router was configured to not respond to ping requests. The WAN setup page on my netgear router has a setting "Allow Pinging of Router Internet Interface" that needs to be enabled. There are some other cool stuff that can be set on the WAN setup page. See description and picture below:
Select the appropriate check box or option button to turn on your router's firewall. Some routers (such as my Netgear router) have the firewall enabled by default, and the configuration page does not provide an enable option; it only allows you to disable the firewall by selecting Disable SPI Firewall. Disabling the firewall opens up your network to the possibility of outside attack. There is actually no good reason to disable the firewall, even if access to gaming or other services is a problem, because all connectivity issues can be resolved with port triggering and port forwarding settings
Specify DMZ Server IP Address
If you want to operate a computer or a server (such as a computer that is acting as a web server or a gaming server) outside the firewall, you can have the router place that computer in the DMZ. This means that the network is still protected from attack but that the DMZ computer could potentially be attacked. To place a computer on your network in the DMZ using a Netgear router, select the Default DMZ Server check box and then enter the IP address of the computer that will be placed in the DMZ. The DMZ isn't really a place; it is a virtual location configured by your WiFi router's firewall. The DMZ is a virtual place that resides between your protected internal network and the public Internet. Placing a computer in the DMZ allows it to communicate with the Internet without the router's firewall inspecting the data flowing to and from the computer. It is not uncommon for computers offering certain services to be placed in the DMZ. Even large corporations sometimes place communication servers in the DMZ so that they do not have to open ports on the firewall to allow access to the server.
Allow Pinging of Router Internet Interface
By default, most WiFi routers are configured so that the router's interface or connection to the Internet cannot be pinged. The Internet interface for you router is actually assigned its IP address by your Internet service provider. So the Internet interface on the router is really its public interface. Allowing the public interface to be pinged can open the router up to attack since it can be "pinged to death." A malicious individual on the Internet could send a barrage of ping packets or oversized ping packets that would actually bring down the router's public interface. This kind of attack is called the "Ping of Death." Enable the router's Internet interface for pinging only if your Internet service provider (or you) needs to ping that interface to determine whether there is a connectivity problem. For my Netgear router, I select the Respond to Ping on Internet Port option to turn on this feature. When you have determined that the interface can be reached by a ping (from you or the ISP technician), I suggest that you disable the feature.
Set MTU Size
The Maximum Transmit Unit (MTU) value for Ethernet networks such as your WiFi network is 1500 bytes. Leave the MTU setting at the default unless your Internet service provider requires that a different setting be used. If you're unsure about the MTU value, contact your ISP. To change the MTU on my Netgear router, I click in the MTU text box and type a different value. Each router provides a slightly different configuration screen for setting the MTU. Your Internet service provider determines the optimal MTU for the network it services by trial and error. The only way you might perceive that you don't have the correct MTU setting for your ISP connection would be a slight slowing of the connection to the Internet—and this would only be in situations where your MTU is set higher than the ISP's and your data packets have to be broken into smaller chunks for transmission. So, bottom line, call your ISP and see whether it uses a special MTU setting.